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1 year ago

Statistics of actual use of the top

We also recorded bird first-tier TERlt for insectivorous, herbivorous, and granivorous bird scenarios as well as higher-tier TERlt when available in the reports.
3. Results
3.1. Potential exposure of clutches to single active substances
Partridge clutches (n = 140 clutches, > 1600 eggs) were exposed to 108 ASs during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases over Valdecoxib total of 179 ASs used between 1st March and 31st August 2010 and 2011 (84 herbicides, 4 herbicide safeners, 58 fungicides, 20 insecticides, 7 plant growth regulators, 2 molluscicides, 2 acaricides, 1 anti-sprouting, and 1 bird repellent. Some ASs were also defoliants.) (Table 1, Appendix A). 71.4% of the clutches were exposed to at least one AS. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a sieve cells given AS was ≥ 5% for 32 ASs. These “top” ASs were mainly fungicides (n = 17, 53.1%). Herbicides represented 25% of top ASs, insecticides 15.6% and growth regulators 6.2%.
Table 1.

1 year ago

Statistical analysis Results Characterization of CuO NP stock suspension

3.3. Effect of water quality parameters on zeta potential of CuO-NPs
As shown in Table S1, CMX001 zeta potential of CuO-NPs in the reconstituted waters ranged between − 17.9 and − 4.32 mV irrespective of incubation time, indicating instability. Significant differences in the zeta potential were found depending on the properties of the reconstituted water and incubation time (p < 0.05) but not their interaction (p > 0.05). The response surface models for zeta potential of CuO-NPs in the reconstituted waters also gave high R2 values of 0.90 and 0.85 for the ZETA day2 model and the ZETA day10 model, respectively ( Fig. 2) and insignificant lack of fit (p = 0.342 for ZETA day2 and p = 0.282 for ZETA day10), indicating the adequacy of the models (Fig. S3).
Compared to the hydrodynamic diameter models, only the linear and quadratic terms for hardness significantly influenced the zeta potential of CuO-NPs in the reconstituted waters (p < 0.05) after 2 days of incubation, explaining 66% of the total variance, while the linear terms for pH and hardness and quadratic terms for hardness significantly influenced the zeta potential of CuO-NPs in the reconstituted waters (p < 0.05) after 10 days of incubation, explaining 69% of the total variance ( Table 1). The final second-order response surface models for the zeta potential of CuO-NPs in the reconstituted waters were as follows:equation(3)ZetapotentialDay2=−17.6+0.09×Hardness−0.0002×Hardness2,equation(4)ZetapotentialDay10=−4.66−1.33×pH+0.07×Hardness−0.0002×Hardness2.

1 year ago

Mineral N during winter wheat and summer

3.3. Mineral N during winter wheat and summer rice
At the onset of the experiment before sowing of winter wheat 2008/09, initial WWL 70 mineral N contents in the 0–0.9 m soil profiles on the various sites ranged from 26 to 52 kg N ha−1 with 34 kg N ha−1 on average (data not shown). Moreover, residual 'WWL Nmin contents in the 0–0.9 m soil profiles after summer rice harvest showed no clear differentiation between treatments (Fig. 1). Mean Nmin contents for all treatments were 18.2, 41.8 and 21.3 kg N ha−1 in 0–0.9 m after the summer rice seasons 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. While mineral N in the profile was nearly depleted after the first and the third summer rice crops, a considerable amount of Nmin remained in the soil after the summer rice season 2010 in all treatments.
Fig. 1. Mean residual Nmin contents (n = 5) in 0–0.9 m depth after harvest of summer rice (SR) and winter wheat (WW) crops during the three-year field experiment (2008/09–2011). Error bars present standard deviation of the mean.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

PAHs concentration ng g ww in fish

PAHs concentration (ng/g ww) in AMG837 fish collected from experimental ponds and reference ponds.nNapAcelAceFlPhAAnFlAPyBaAChryBbkFBaPIPDahABghiPΣPAHsExperimental pondsControl feedBH111.150.180.360.762.870.370.131.534.090.755.136.16ndndnd23.5 ± 0.54aGC191.180.080.340.745.390.740.880.926.272.193.181.50ndndnd23.4 ± 2.26aMD61.320.030.520.452.090.890.140.080.140.150.160.01ndndnd5.99 ± 3.45bFW ABH91.090.020.190.701.650.070.570.722.590.242.67ndndndnd10.5 ± 5.02bcGC252.280.240.320.143.320.281.290.913.331.182.281.02ndndnd16.6 ± 2.21cMD61.691.040.180.364.250.270.120.230.440.110.010.011.20ndnd9.92 ± 1.80bcFW BBH101.370.111.120.430.551.180.430.400.702.511.21ndndndnd10.0 ± 4.10bcGC213.320.130.141.384.641.040.570.110.070.062.970.13ndndnd14.6 ± 2.02cMD61.160.110.430.302.361.000.170.190.540.100.250.281.44ndnd8.33 ± 1.82bReference pondsShundeGC51.431.820.512.246.112.580.900.840.800.290.200.380.12nd0.1418.3 ± 1.61cBH32.030.330.351.146.832.880.851.002.110.380.330.40nd0.220.1118.9 ± 3.81cGuangzhouGC32.520.210.541.315.442.351.151.041.000.280.260.59ndndnd16.7 ± 7.07bcGaoyaoLB63.880.210.881.296.262.631.250.961.890.590.350.69ndndnd20.9 ± 2.27aHong KongT80.910.080.450.271.190.620.190.320.730.200.080.18ndndnd5.23 ± 3.09bNote: GC: grass carp; BH: bighead carp; MD: mud carp; LB: largemouth bass; T: tilapia; FWA: food waste A, FW B: food waste B, control feed: commercial fish feed—Jinfeng®, 613 formulated feed.

1 year ago

Conclusion Fluvial Suspended sediment Phosphorus Diffuse pollution Water quality

Fluvial; Suspended sediment; Phosphorus; Diffuse pollution; Water quality; Headwater; Connectivity; Grassland
1. Introduction
Such information is valuable and necessary to inform mitigation strategies for reducing diffuse water pollution from agriculture (DWPA) in the UK (McGonigle et al., 2014). The development of a solid evidence INCB28060 prior to the implementation of mitigation measures is required to: a) determine the effectiveness of control measures (e.g., Wilkinson et al., 2014); b) assess the cost-effectiveness of resource allocation (e.g., Posthumus et al., 2013); and c) enable reliable and transparent decisions to be made about future catchment operations (Collins et al., 2012).

1 year ago

Reporter gene assays have been utilized to assess total

The goals of this study were to assess the water quality at potentially threatened sites across Missouri and to ascertain whether the type of point source contamination to surface water could be determined based on Isoprenaline activities and chemical concentrations present in the water sampled from each location. Six sites were selected for investigation, including two nearby permitted atmospheric release sites of BPA, and four downstream of current or historical WWTP effluent discharge sites (Fig. 1, Table 1). At each site, grab water samples were collected to ascertain chemicals present at a given point in time, and passive samplers were deployed to measure chemicals present in the water at the specific location over approximately 35 days. We hypothesized that 1) concentrations of BPA and EE2 would be greater near permitted airborne release sites and WWTP effluent inputs, respectively, and 2) that BPA and EE2 would be responsible for the majority of estrogenic and BPA for the majority of anti-androgenic receptor activities observed in water samples collected near the respective site types. Concentrations of BPA and EE2 were compared to observed receptor activities of individual chemical standards to assess the contribution to total receptor-based activities. Further, quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to help characterize each site. Altogether, receptor activities and individual chemical concentrations were analyzed to determine point source pollution potential and contamination signatures.

1 year ago

Equation of motion At the continuum level

At the continuum level, considering the translational motion of the NP in the direction that BGB-324 is vertical to the solidification front, the critical solidification velocity of capturing the nanoparticle is determined from the equation of motion asequation(17)mdvdt=fm+fdwhere vv is the particle velocity, m is the particle mass, t   is the time, fmfm is the intermolecular force (van der Waals force) between the solidification front and nanoparticle, and fdfd is the drag force due to the pressure gradient around the particle.
In steady-state models, left hand side (LHS) of Eq. (17) is taken as zero.

1 year ago

Se concentrations ranged from to xA pg g with

Atmospheric Al concentrations in Greenland usually exhibit strong peaks in spring associated with Asian dust episodes (Candelone et al., 1996 and Barbante et al., 2003). In this RN 1 study, pronounced Al peaks were observed at 9.1–13.7, 160.0–164.6, 205.7–210.3, and 306.3–310.9 cm and relatively weak peaks at 68.6–73.1, 105.1–109.7, and 274.3–278.9 cm (Table S2 and Fig. 2). The peaks generally occurred in snow layers deposited slightly later than winter as defined by δ18O minima, indicating that these depth intervals corresponded to spring. Seasonal variation in Na+ concentration derived from sea salt are characterized by winter–spring maxima and mid-summer minima in interior Greenland aerosols and snow (Mosher et al., 1993 and Dibb et al., 2007). After subtracting the Na concentration from crustal dust using the Al concentrations in each sample (Wedepohl, 1995), the sea-salt-Na+ (ss-Na+) concentrations in our snow samples exhibit strong peaks in the transition from winter to spring as inferred from δ18O and Al, except for the 32.0–36.6 cm and 41.1–45.7 cm depth intervals. Similar poorly defined peaks for chemical species were previously reported in a central Greenland snow profile (Mayewski et al., 1990 and Barbante et al., 2003).

1 year ago

Photocatalytic reduction of Cr VI using

Most commonly studied wide bandgap semiconductors have conduction band minima [11] positive enough for the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to occur ( Fig. 1C). During light irradiation, photogenerated holes are also produced, which can be used to oxidize water or a sacrificial agent, Dn ( Fig. 1A). To be able to oxidize water, the valence band edge of the semiconductor must be more positive than the reduction potential for OH−/O2. The net reaction for Cr(VI) reduction and concurrent water oxidation in acidic and neutral environments are shown in Eqs.

1 year ago

Results and discussion Optimization of processing parameters The

The green compacts from granules with different binder contents were cold isostatically pressed (CIP) under 200 MPa. Their pore size distributions are shown in Fig. 4(a). They exhibited only one peak in 20–200 nm excepting that HG-9-91-01 the green compacts with excessive binder, 2.0 and 3.0 wt.%, had another distribution peak at about 35 μm, representing larger pores in them. The 1.0 wt.% binder formed green compact had the smallest pore size distribution centered at about 60 nm. This relatively smaller and more uniform pore size would greatly promote the densification of ceramics during sintering. Fig. 4(b) shows the density change of fabricated ceramics under different stages. The green compacts with 2.0 and 3.0 wt.% PVB showed the lower density, although pituitary gland had little difference after CIP. However, the difference was acutely magnified after vacuum sintering and the fabricated ceramic with 1.0 wt.% binder had the highest density 99.3% under a lower sintering temperature 1700 °C (they all finished densification >1750 °C). This is consistent with the results of SEM, AD/TD of granules and MIP analysis of green compacts. In fact, the fabricated ceramic with 1.0 wt.% binder also had the highest optical transmittance. Therefore, the optimized binder content of PVB is 1.0 wt.%.